Appendix G: Security Considerations
IHE compliant systems usually process private healthcare information. This is subject to national privacy regulations, and possibly other state and contractual requirements. The IHE Infrastructure profiles do not fully define the security mechanisms necessary to protect this information. The Enterprise User Authentication Profile provides one component of this solution.
IHE assumes that actors will be installed on nodes with the following characteristics:
Each node has a security policy and procedure that applies to its operation.
This is assumed to be part of the healthcare enterprise security policy.
- Any user (human, or application process) external to the node boundaries is submitted to an access control procedure in which the user/application will be authenticated.
- All required audit trail events are captured and recorded.
The profiles in this framework assume the following environment:
- Physical Security Environment
- The equipment is assumed to be located in a physically protected and actively monitored area. This is normally the case with modality equipment because of other patient safety, privacy, and operational concerns. Similarly, the HIS systems and various archives are normally protected. Equipment like PACS workstations is sometimes placed in unprotected areas, but it is usually located where hospital staff monitors and limit access. It assumes that the threat of equipment modification is protected against by means of the physical security mechanisms.
- The network equipment that connects the computers is also assumed to be physically protected against unauthorized connections and unauthorized modifications. In the treatment areas of most hospitals the network equipment is in ceilings, cableways, locked cabinets, and other protected areas. There is usually staff present to monitor that no unauthorized activity is taking place.
- Local procedures and operations will be in place to ensure that the physical security assumptions are valid for other areas of the hospital, such as administrative offices, that may be at greater risk.
- Remote locations, especially home offices, are not physically protected. Other means will be used to provide equivalent protection. This may include the use of technology such as VPN connections or HTTPS encryption. Use of encryption or VPN is not a complete replacement for physical security but may be part of an overall protection system.
- The home computer that is used for both personal and professional purposes is difficult to protect. It will be protected from inadvertent modification by malicious software or its use will be prohibited.
- Network Security Environment
- In addition to the physical security of the network, there will be protection against network access by unsupervised systems. This is typically provided by mechanisms such as firewalls and VPNs.
The threat profile is assumed to be:
- Accidental and inadvertent misuse
- Individual abuse for personal gain, malice, revenge, or curiosity. The abusers are assumed to have only limited access to the underlying systems and software. They are not expert at the internal structure of the systems.
- Random untargeted abuse, such as from an Internet hacker.
The threat profile also assumes that the following threats are either not present or otherwise protected.
- Individual abuse by a system administrator, system developer, or other expert.
- Military or hostile government action
- Organized criminal attack
IHE addresses only those security requirements related to IT systems within the scope of IHE healthcare applications. It does not address security requirements for defending against network attacks, virus infection, etc.
IHE does not mandate the use of encryption because the performance impact of current encryption algorithms is excessive. Most hospital networks provide adequate security through physical and procedural mechanisms. The additional performance penalty for encryption is not justified for these networks. The profiles permit the use of encryption so that it can be used as part of an overall security plan.