Appendix D: User Authentication Techniques - Passwords, Biometrics, and Tokens
Authentication techniques are based on one or more of three factors: Something you know, something you are, or something you have. There are many different authentication techniques in use today. The technologies supporting these techniques are not well standardized. There are also excellent security reasons to avoid specifying any single set of technologies for authentication use.
The Kerberos protocol was originally defined to work with any user authentication technique. Kerberos has been shown to support a wide variety of authentication technologies. These include various forms of tokens and biometric technologies. Specific implementations of these technologies often include proprietary components. There is often a pair of proprietary components added – one at the user workstation and a matching component at the authentication server. Once the user authentication is complete, the subsequent Kerberos transactions are the same.
These extensions are not yet standardized. The IHE specification for the use of Kerberos does not prevent the use of these extensions at a specific site, nor does it ensure that the extensions will work.
The Kerberos system specified for the Enterprise User Authentication utilizes a challenge response system together with a username and password system to authenticate the user. The minimal support of passwords provides a standardized baseline for the IHE “Enterprise User Authentication”. Kerberos enables enforcement of a central password policy which facilitates stronger passwords. Such password policies are beyond the scope of IHE. Kerberos does not prevent the use of weak passwords. The password strength policy must be chosen and enforced by the site security administration.